Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Improvement in our food

Food Resources

For their existence, all living organisms essentially require food. Early human beings started hunting

animals and collecting fruits, flowers and roots of forest plants to meet their food requirements. Food is

required for growth, development and body repair. It also protects the body from diseases and provides

energy for doing all life functions. For example, food supplies proteins, carbohydrates and fats (lipids),

vitamins, minerals and water to our body.

Among all the living organisms, only green plants are autotrophs, i.e., they make their own food.

In fact, green plants perform a basic metabolic activity, called photosynthesis. In photosynthesis by

using the energy of sunlight, green plants combine carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) to produce

carbohydrates (Food). In contrast to green plants, animals and human beings are heterotrophs, i.e., they

depend on plants and other animals for food. Since time immemorial, human beings have been doing

farming and rearing animals to meet their food requirements.

Plants as food are gift of nature to humans and most animals. In fact, different parts of plants, such

as root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit, are consumed by humans in the form of cereals, vegetables, spices

and fruits. Animals produce milk, egg, meat, etc., which also supplement our food requirements.


With 1.04 billion people, our country ranks second in population growth around the world. According to

an estimate, by the year 2020, Indian population would rise to 1.343 billion. To feed such a huge population,

we will require at least 241 million tonnes of grain production per annum. Therefore, it is necessary to

increase production of both, plants and animals. Even in the past, to meet the demands of growing Indian

population, our scientists (such as Swaminathan, Kurein) adapted methods to increase food production. This

resulted in a variety of ' revolutions', which helped India become self-reliant. These revolutions include:

green revolution (high production of food grains), blue revolution (enhanced fish production), white



improve In India crops

nipulati farmers. Keeping are in grown mind in diverse types of soil and different climatic conditions by poor to progressive

as to be adaptability, etc., a large number climatic factors, input application, disease and pest resistance, quality and

and of varieties have been developed in

DN high yielding and resistant to diseases and pests; they have better quality India and (Table early 1.7 to). late These maturing varieties time are

1 selectis Table 1.7. Improved varieties or high yielding varieties

improvi Commodities Сторы (HYV) of some important crop plants

1. Cereals Varieties

1. Rice

provere IR B, Jaya, Heera, VL Dhan 221.C ST 7-1, Jawahar

ection Pusa Basmati 1, Kasturi, Vikas, TRC-C10, TR 36

an 2. Wheat MIKS 11 KML 7406, HUW 318., MACS PNR-591 2496-18. HD Padma 2687 HD 2285 C 306

hon PBW 154, HW 157, Pusa Lerma,

to 3. Maize Sharbati Sonora

r growi 2. Pulses 1. Chick pea (gram) BE Ganga 244, 5 ICC, HTM128 34, K, 850 Shaldi, H, 208 Navjot, Pusa, Vikram 2: 0. Pant 174

nent 2. Pigeon pea ICPH

wi 3. 8, Pusa Ageti, UPAS 120. Pusa 84 Manak. 121

paya, et Urad bean LB G 17, ADT 3, T9 Pant 4301, PS 1. C05

3. Oil seeds 1. 3. 2. 4 1., Mustard Sunflower Soyabean Groundnut Moong bean PK BSH Pusa MH MLZ 262 2 1 Bold 67,,, MSF ICGS PK, CO4, Kranti 327 H8 1,,, PS M37, Pusa Morden, 16 Pusat,, GG 58 24,, Agarni T 11 Durga, Arun 44, TMV, K851,,, RIM514 Gaurav Paras 12., Aasha Kaushal, RH30, ICGS 11,1CGS 44


is havi


ixed an 4. Mutation breeding. Mutations

rocess through gamma irradiation are sudden inheritable variations. They are produced at random

chieved higher mutations grained dwarf 5. Polyploidy yields Mexican forms by, selective eg (c.8 varieties.. potato, It Pusa is hybridization increasing Lerma of and wheat, Sharbati a the number. were They chromosome developed were Sonora of other, however) through physical number by, N.E. red mutation. and grained Borlaugh Polyploids chemical. carried The are (same agents 1963 out generally) were through by called gamma converted more mutagens incorporation irradiation robust into. amber Triple with of

te for



cauliflower Such crop thuringiensis so as 6. which transgenic to DNA modify, cabbage carries recombinant whose the food latter, genes bacterial plants etc.,, They technology to are are get genes used are called protection called by that. genetically This transgenic genetically protect technology from plants their modified crops modified insect refers with such food transfer pests insects as organisms (cotton GMFs.. of Bt, genes). rice (stands GMOs Bt, cotton mize from for), or is one potato the transgenic a genetically organism bacterium, tomato organisms to modified, another brinjal Bacillus,.

ybrid (3) Crop Protection Management


the number weeds economic crops Field, insects of to crops loss insect the, by mites are extent pests destroying infested, nematodes of and 50 diseases with to crop 70, a per rodents variety plants. If cent these,. or of fungi pests pests products, bacteria are. A not pest obtained controlled and is any viruses from destructive at. them appropriate Field. organism crops Pests of are time crop which infested they plants causes can by damage include a great large

of are kill weedicides and these sprayed pests There effective toxic, eg are (on, for chemicals methods weeds various crop killing, plants insects methods is the (pesticides the weeds or, use mites used by of),) and pesticides which rodents as for they fungicides treating insects and cause or biocides fungi seeds and environmental (for diseases are and killing which called soil the. can pesticides include However pollution fungi be controlled). insecticides Thus,.. one These In, fact should chemicals. One chemicals, it (would for of try killing the (to poisons (be most ie avoid, far the pesticides common) better the insects used use to if)),

Other living organisms

IL Insect Pest plants. They at
serious pests of
Many insects are following three ways:
plants in the
attack the crop chewing insects
insects. The
1. Chewing root,
plants. They cut
destroy all sort of crop ot their
plants by the help
stem and leaf of crop insects tear
Thus, chewing
chewing mouth parts.
chew them
delicate branches,
off bits of leaves,
locusts, grasshoppers
and then swallow them, e,g.,
(Hieroglyphus), caterpillars, grubs, etc.
sucking insects suck
2. Sucking insects. The
of the plant. They
the cell sap from various parts
of plants such
include various common pests crop
Aphis), leaf hoppers (Pyrilla),
as aphids (eg.,
painted bug Bagrada
bugs (Gundhi bug of rice, or
red cotton bug or
of cruciferous plants, and
piercing-sucking mouth
Dysdercus). They possess
fine punctures in the
parts. Sucking insects make
needle-like, hollow
skin of the plants with their
beaks and suck the sap.
feeders live
3. Internal feeders. The internal
inside the plant parts. They are called borers
they live in twigs borers.
or roots as sugarcane
and fe
Pod borer make holes in pods of chick pea
they attack the fruits and seeds such as cotton-boll
inside the fruits such as guava, ber, karela, ghia tori,
Further, grubs (larvae of beetle) and termites
sugarcane) attack the root zone of crops and then
Infestation of different types of insect pests ca
(i) Root cutting types of insects are controlled
(i) Stem and leaf cutting and boring type of inse
the contact insecticides (Table 1.8), e.g., ma
(ii) All sap sucking insects can be controlled
dimethoate and metasystox. An insecticide
and passing through the tissues is called sv

aquatic MP
economic va value) lue) aquatnc Plants and, IMP
high ea weeds
(1.e, of ov country country's by Tood Poper outb us
yoedd s
usetul , nume inland water
Aquacuiture r useful mussecreasi musseis ncreisng the merous
shrimp 5,
pertains Crayfish. to lo colstie 1 che
Aquaculture CTalb8, or
cotnercial cial basis basis Includen plan
waters Teis nportant means
cralyi an imp lengthy lengthy fisheries
ach as fishes, prawns, reDecause ot a culture ihaid ort The mnga
of ailabie freshwater 5.
coastal waters carps includ com
has a great potential tor the and
cultured m 1hese Kashmir carps inchude the o he
Aquaculture includes maricul dre lakes. These
in other
Mariculture. The Sardinee establlsned
POS, sardines, marine ospects in hed in Kasnu ad
and ns have pr
pearl spots, eel been
hatcheries has good
of exotic carps fishery(T0) (io) fishen
Freshwater shery tishery; pond
trouts. Trout lacustrine
carp, antry.IntrOduction of
carp, bnglish English carp, ea tench and
fishery; (ii) lake or Waters h
(i) reserv expansion in our et waters havep
3. Inland Fisheries iing southern
It includes () riverine fishery ; ) reservoir
fisheries nor
transplantation are rapidly
fish from inland heries. Construction
Inland capture of affectng e nense to hske
Practio A Silver ca
O estuarine fishery. inter-regional adversely also causig aqulacuitare
es tom abroad and pollunon of Indiscriminate water is fishing 1s wever, through culture. Fish
o De great boon. fisheries. inland resoue , paddy-cu
from stem farming 15 compostte tish
ed many n Increasing
regional is include include paddy-cum-fish nThese species h
ot fish production advantageous culture system six
edire most combination of p
with agriculture he Box 1.25. SOme interestinggood
table fish production, up Important factors t
culture co and also taken
gated fish system culture is Det
fish systems have
steel, which which are
1tadc e bamboo or are towelcu nnutrients. of pond ; (1) Water re
x4). Difterent types of The time o
culture systems are rollowin8 tavourahl
in large cages, made of 1S most
1.Cage culture. Fish is cultured such as p Qualita
species are cultured n cog some agcuitara crops
poultry Or PissThe Culture
nver Generally, carnivorous culture is practiced along with uie POuly Or piggen g
2ntegrated fish culture. Fish cultured n ponas ear
higher yield. Fish is also
nana and coconut to give
used as tood in ponds. chniq
the excreta of these animals is
ox 1.26
Paddy-cum-lish culture through This This teehnique of in
Llrrninus fish culture
paddy helds include Cata catia, Labeo rontta, abiebreeding. This tech
The fish species that can be stocked in are
spp., Lates calcarirer, etc. hese species
Clarias Mugil
spp. (catfish), Channa spp. (murrels),
able to tolerate high temperature or turbidity.
in shallow water of paddy fields and During educa
(Polyculture of Fish) Indian carps) and.
4. Composite Fish Culture
monoculture) using old ta 1. Varieties or
Fish production by culturing a singie species in à pond (called
pond, the pro 2. Types Ingredients and
methods gives a low yield ; Dut several Species or nsh are stocked together in a
increases with the same cost. Fience t is ecessalry to Select species having different feeding nab
4. What is th
all the available food in the pond is etfectvely utilised. Fast growing compatible species are
tition between them and all ecological zones are exploited for acnieyo 5. From whe
yield. This method is called composite fish farming or polyculture of fishes. . Observe
Experiments have shown that indian major carps (i.e., Catla, tish.
exotic rohu
of carps (Le, and mrigal; Fig. 1.14) vhen S
ong with three ecies Silver carp, all 7. Visit a f
China), yield goes grass
from the carp and
species are transplalnted Based or
species are as follows: up -9 common carp, Fig
habits of these six as compared to monO


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